Diabetes is a chronic disease that develops in case when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the organism does not effectively use the insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates levels of sugar in the blood. A common effect of uncontrolled diabetes is hyperglycemia (elevated levels of blood sugar) which eventually leads to serious damage of many body systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. Diabetes is divided into diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes.
- Diabetes type 1 previously known as insulin-dependent is characterized by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas glad. The most common symptoms of diabetes type 1 include frequent urination (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant sense of hunger, weight loss, vision changes, tiredness. These symptoms usually develops suddenly.
- Diabetes type 2 previously known as insulin non-dependent diabetes that develops as a result of non efficient utilization of insulin by the organism. Diabetes type 2 occupies 90% of all diabetes cases and usually develops in people with overweight, insufficient physical activity, smoking and drinking alcohol frequently. Symptoms of diabetes type 2 are similar to those with diabetes type 1 but are less expressed. The diseases can be diagnosed after several years after the first complications occur. Diabetes type 2 is common for adults, however, for the last 10 years this type of diabetes is observed in children and adolescents.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia that develops in women during pregnancy. Most commonly this type of diabetes is diagnosed during prenatal screening.
Decreased glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycemia are intermediate states between diabetes and health condition. People with these conditions have a high risk of diabetes type 2, however it is not an imminence.
Diabetes interesting facts
- Nearly 220 millions of people all over the world suffer from diabetes
- Nearly 1.1 millions of people with diabetes died in 2005 because of diabetes complications
- Nearly 80% of these cases take place in countries with low and moderate level of profit.
- Approximately 50% of mortality from diabetes take place in patients under 70 years of age.
- According to WHO forecasts, this number of patients with diabetes will double in 2030.
Healthy nutrition, regular physical activity, maintaining appropriate weight and abstention from smoking can prevent or delay diabetes development.