Human urinary system consists from 2 main groups of organs: urinific and urinoexcretory. Urinific organs include kidneys; urinoexcretory organs include renal calyx, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urinary canal. Their main function is to excrete decay products with urine.
Beside urinific function kidney play an important role in regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the body. They prevent excessive increase of water in the organism by increasing urination. Kidneys are also organs of purification and maintenance of acid-base balance, participate in regulation of blood pressure. The diseases of kidney and urinary ducts are commonly observed in clinical practice. The most common diseases include:
Pyelonephritis (pyelonephritis) - an infectious inflammatory disease of the kidneys that affects malpighian tufts, renal tubules and renal parenchyma. It can be developed as a result of systemic disease such systemic lupus erythematosus and as independent disease. The most common pathogens that cause pyelonephritis include Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus. Frequently several pathogens are involved in pathogenic process.
Glomerulonephritis is a renal inflammatory disease of autoimmune origin, affecting the renal glomeruli, tubules, which develops as independent disease or as a result of systemic disorders (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus). The most common cause of glomerulonephritis is streptococcal infection (tonsillitis, scarlet fever, pneumonia, purulent skin lesions), in rare cases tuberculosis and malaria can be a cause of the disease. Sometimes Glomerulonephritis can be provoked by vaccinations, allergies to medications, toxic substances, cold injury. Depending on the form glomerulonephritis can be acute, subacute and chronic.
Renal failure is a pathological condition in which the kidneys partly or completely lose the ability to maintain constancy of the chemical composition of the organism's internal environment of the organism. This leads to disorders of water-electrolyte balance in the organism, retention of non-volatile acids and metabolism nitrogenous products (urea, creatinine, uric acid, etc.).
Urolithiasis, is a disease of urogenital tract, characterized by the formation of stones in the kidneys and other organs of the urinary system. It is one of the most common urological disease.